Everything Can Be Cured- Your Cancer Too

Cancer is caused by uncontrollable cell division, and these cells spread throughout surrounding tissues.

The most prevalent type of cancer in women is Breast Cancer. Breast cancer is a disease that causes breast cells to grow at an abnormal pace. There are several types of breast carcinoma, but most occur in the ducts or the lobules. Breast cancer can be caused by abnormal growth of cells that divide and spread through lymph nodes to other parts.

Signs/Symptoms Of Breast Cancer

A lump or hard mass is the first sign of breast carcinoma. However, different breast cancers have distinctive symptoms and signs, including Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC), abnormal thickening of the breast, and other physical signs.

When To Seek Your Doctor?

  • Changes in the physical appearance of infected breasts, including soreness or swelling
  • Itching, redness, or other noticeable changes, such as itching, rash, or itching
  • Increase in breast size or change of shape
  • Deformation of nipples
  • A typical nipple release other than breast milk
  • Permanent pain in one breast or both
  • You can feel the lump or node when you press.

Breast Cancer Treatment Options

Get help on breast cancer treatment in Singapore with advanced technology and an experienced team of Doctors. The treatment and medication is based on the severity of the disease.


Chemotherapy, which uses anticancer drugs, is a treatment, and it prevents the spread and inhibition of cancer cell growth. It can be used before surgery to shrink tumors or after surgery to lower the chance of relapse as part of an overall cancer treatment plan.

Hormonal Therapy

Hormones like estrogen can increase the growth of certain types of cancer, so hormone therapy aims at reducing this effect in breast cancer treatment.

Radiation Therapy

After surgery, it uses high-energy radiation X-rays to destroy any remaining cancer cells.

The Following Are Surgical Cancer Treatments:


This is technically a partial mastectomy, and this involves only removing the tumour and a small amount surrounding healthy tissue. The surgery is advised by doctors for patients who have cysts in their early stages.


Removal of the breast tissue through surgery is Mastectomy. A total mastectomy removes all muscle below the breast. The lymph nodes in the armpits must be retained unless they are contained within the breast tissue.

How To Test For Breast Cancer?

It is essential to inspect your breasts frequently for abnormalities, such as a lump, retracted, abnormal nipple, or nipple discoloration. Early detection can lead to better outcomes in breast cancer treatment.


If you feel any changes in the skin or your nipples, such as abnormal lumps or dimpling, please consult your doctor immediately. Your specialist will help you decide the best steps and the most appropriate treatment options depending on the stage and your situation. They will collaborate with you in developing a breast carcinoma treatment plan.

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Isomers and Their Type

Isomers are different molecules that have the same molecular formula but are structurally different. As a result, isomers have the same number of atoms for each element, but their atomic arrangement varies. Despite having the same molecular formula, the physical properties of each molecule can vary, especially if the functional groups associated with each molecule differ. Isomerization is the process of converting one molecule with identical atoms into another molecule with identical atoms. Depending on whether the bond energy of the configurations is comparable, this may or may not occur spontaneously.

Types of Isomers

The two main types of isomerism are structural or constitutional isomerism, which occurs when the bonds between the atoms differ, and stereoisomerism or spatial isomerism, which occurs when the bonds are the same but the relative positions of the atoms differ.

Structural Isomers

Isomers differ from one another in structural isomerismalso known as constitutional isomers, because their constituent atoms are linked in different ways and sequences. The IUPAC names for structural isomers differ.

Chain isomers (e.g., hydrocarbon chains with different branching patterns); position isomers (which differ based on the positioning of a functional group on the chain); functional group isomers (in which a functional group is further divided into different functional groups); and skeletal isomers (which exhibit different carbon chains) are examples of structural isomers. A tautomer is another type of structural isomer. Tautomers spontaneously interconvert between two structural isomers, and their properties vary depending on the isoform.


Stereoisomers are isomers that have the same bond structure but differ in the geometric position of the functional groups and atoms. Enantiomers, diastereomers, and conformational isomers are examples of stereoisomers. Enantiomers are mirror images with chiral centres that cannot be superimposed. Diastereomers are not mirrored images with or without chiral centres. Different rotations occur around single bonds in conformational isomers.

Meso compounds are examples of stereoisomers.

Conformational Isomers (conformers)

Isomers can be classified using conformation. Enantiomers, diastereomers, and rotamers are all examples of conformers.

There are several methods for identifying stereoisomers, including cis-trans and E/Z.

Examples of Isomers

A few examples of isomers are as follows:

  • Methoxyethane and Propanol –

C3H8O is a chemical structure that exists as several propanol isomers, as well as the isomer methoxy ethane.

  • Methylacetylene and Allene –

C3H4 isomers include methyl acetylene and allene, which differ based on the type of bonding exhibited by the molecules.

  • Fulminate and Cyanate –

Isomers of CNO include fulminate and cyanate.

  • Glucose and Fructose –

C6H12O6 isomers include glucose and fructose, which differ based on the position of a double-bonded O atom.

  • Meso Compounds

Importance of Isomers

Since enzymes prefer one isomer over another, isomers are especially important in nutrition and medicine, and enantiomers are of particular concern because they may have distinct biological activities. Many preparative procedures result in an equal mixture of both enantiomeric forms. In some cases, chiral stationary phases are used to separate the enantiomers. They can also be separated by forming diastereomeric salts. Enantioselective synthesis has also been developed in other cases.

As an example of an inorganic compound, cisplatin is an important drug used in cancer chemotherapy, whereas the trans isomer (transplatin) has no pharmacological activity.

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